MemberMay 8, 2021 at 8:17 am::
Seeds grow into a plant through the process of germination. Germination requires adequate sunlight, temperature, air and water for the seed to become a plant.
Amazingly, a tall tree develops from a tiny seed. Just like a human embryo contains all the genetic materials that determine our development into adults, the embryo that is present inside the seed also has the same!
A seed is made up of three parts,
• The Embryo – it gives rise to the new plant
• The Endosperm – it nourishes and provides food for the seedling
• The Seed coat – it is an outer covering that protects the embryo. Some seed coats are hard (eg: corn, peas), whereas others are soft (eg: tomatoes, peppers).
The seed coat has small pores which let water and air enter. Just like we humans need oxygen, the seed also needs oxygen and they give out carbon dioxide until the leaves grow. Once the leaves are grown, they start to produce oxygen. The soil needs to be porous, only then water and air can reach the seeds.
When the optimum conditions are met, the seed coat bursts and a primary root emerges. It is known as the radical. The root comes before the shoot in almost all the plants. But there are some exceptions; in coconut, the shoot comes before the root. Once the root is emerged, it will start to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
After the root, the hypocotyl and the epicotyl begin growing upwards to become the stem of the plant; the epicotyl becomes the first leaves. By the time the epicotyl emerges, the stem has reached above the ground and the leaves start to emerge. The cotyledons fall off since their job is done and the plant is capable of making its food. This completes the process of germination. Seeds come in many different shapes and sizes, and also have different requirements for growth. For example, some seeds might need more water or light than others.
Seeds have requirements that must be fulfilled at an optimum level. Any condition outside this optimum range may result in the death of the seed. Every seed has a huge responsibility to turn into a giant tree or life-giving plant, so all the ideal conditions must be fulfilled.