MemberMay 13, 2021 at 5:53 pm::
Reported Speech or Direct & Indirect Speech is one of the trickiest topics in Grammar. Not only must you have a good understanding of the Rules of Converting Direct and Indirect Speech, but you must also be aware of the “Exceptions in Direct and Indirect Speech.”
Case 1: He said, “I saw the sun rising in the east.” He said that he had seen the sun rising in the east.
Case 2: He said, “Sun rises in the East.” He said that Sun rises in the East.
In case 1 and 2, the Reporting Verb is in the past tense (said) but still the tense of only Case 1 is changed. There are certain exceptions that follow the change of tense. Exception #1: The tense of the verb doesn’t change even if the Reporting verb is in past tense for the following cases. Universal/ Scientific Truths:
Exception #2: The connector isn’t always ‘that’ for the following cases. Interrogative Sentences: Type 1 – Yes/No type question: ‘If/whether’ is used instead of ‘that’. Type 2 – ‘Wh’ type question: The same ‘Wh’ used in the direct speech is used instead of ‘that’. .The sentences that give advice, order, request or suggestion. ‘To’ is used instead of ‘that’ as a connector.
Use the words ordered, begged, pleaded, implored, advised, demanded, forbade etc. instead of ‘said’ as per the tone of the sentence. Examples: The teacher said to me,” Go in your class and learn your lesson.” The teacher ordered me to go in my class and learn my lesson. He said to her,” Please don’t leave me.” He pleaded her not to leave him. The structure of the indirect speech is always an Assertive Sentence following the structure (subject + helping verb + verb + object).
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