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EdutuberMemberMay 19, 2021 at 6:58 pm::
Human beings were, since long, not only interested in knowing more about different kinds of organisms and their diversities, but also the relationships among them. This branch of study was referred to as Systematics. The word systematics is derivedfrom the Latin word ‘systema’ which means systematic arrangement of organisms. Linnaeus used Systema Naturae as the title of his publication. The scope of and classification. Systematics takes into account evolutionary systematics was later enlarged to include identification, nomenclature and relationships between organisms.Carolus Linnaeus introduced Binomial System of Nomenclature in his book Species Plantarum (1753). He said that there can be variation within species, but they do not change from one species to another.The term “New Systematics” was given by Julian Huxley(1940). Characters of plants collected through different branches of science are considered eg. ecology, physiology, biochemistry, cytology, genetics etc.George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker has given Natural system of classification. In this system of classification all the important characteristic of the organisms that provide information regarding their natural relationship are taken into consideration which helps in bringing out maximum number of similarities in a group and comparable differences with other groups of organisms. For example Mammals are characterised by the presence of mammary gland, hair, Vivipary, 4 chambered heart etc. During the early period of taxonomy, only external morphology (the characters observed with naked eye) was the sole criteria to classify plants and animals. Theophrastus gave names and description of 480 plants in his book “Historia plantarum” , on the basis of their habit but Pliny the Edler introduced first artificial system of classification in his book Historia Naturalis. He classified both plants and animals.