MemberJune 21, 2023 at 7:10 pm::
Harappan Civilization also known as Indus Valley civilization is dated between 2500-1700 BCE. It was also known as brown age civilization. The Indus Valley civilization consisted of two large cities namely, Harappa ane Mohenjodaro which are situated along the Indus river bank. There were more than 100 towns that were relatively smaller in size. It is called “Harappa” because it was first discovered in 1921 at the mordern site of Harappa situated in West punjab i.e Pakistan.
The prominent features of Harappan Civilization are:-
1. Harappan cities were divided into two parts:- Citadel and lower town. Citadels in Harappan civilization were almost 12 metres tall. Even though the purpose of this structure remains debated. The word citadel comes from Latin word citavas which means “citizenship”, “the city or state”. It is said these large fortress are used to protect against attacks, disasters and natural calamities. The main feature of citadel was it was seperated from lower town. It is also believed that in this place the elite members of society used to live. The lower town was used by common people and the marginalised group of society.
2. There was no window in the walls along the ground level. It seems that people were very much concerned about their privacy. There were no windows or doors that faced towards the roads or lanes.
3. The Great Bath is also an extensive feature of Harappan Civilization. It is belived that this rectangle shaped placed and was brick-structured was surrounded by sets of room which was used for bathing. It was basically used for some kinds of ritual bathing. Water was supplied from three adjacent rooms.
4. The most outstanding feature of Harappan civilization were the streets and lanes which were equipped with well- planned drainage system. The streets cut each other at right angle and the width of these streets was in a set-ratio. Even smaller towns and villages has well-planned drainage system. It indicates that people were well aware of hygeine and sanitation. Burnt bricks were used to make drains. Even small drains were connected with latrines and bathrooms of the private houses and these drains ran into larger sewers in the main street which were covered with drains. In Kalibangan, many houses had own wells.
5. The manuscipts that were written during Happan civilization were written in different format. The writings started from right to left and then from left to right in next line. The writings comprised of many signs and symbols. The language is yet to be deciphered. deciphered.
6. There were many teracottas that were found such as Mother Goddess which was discovered in Mohenjo-daro. Teracotta seals were also found.