MemberJune 24, 2023 at 12:59 am::
What is the composition of atmosphere?
The atmosphere is a mixture of various gases, along with suspended particles and water vapor. The composition of the Earth’s atmosphere can be broadly categorized as follows:
Nitrogen (N2): Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere, making up approximately 78% of its composition. It is a non-reactive gas that plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the atmosphere.
Oxygen (O2): About 21% of the atmosphere is made up of oxygen. As it is used in the respiration process by humans, animals, and several other creatures, it is essential for maintaining life.
Argon (Ar): Argon, which makes up around 0.93% of the atmosphere, is present in trace amounts. Being an inert gas, it has no involvement in chemical processes.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide, which makes up roughly 0.04% of the atmosphere, is a little but significant element. It is crucial for photosynthesis in plants and plays a significant part in the climate system of the planet.
Trace Gases: There are several other gases present in the atmosphere in very small concentrations. These include neon (Ne), helium (He), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), hydrogen (H2), and others. While they exist in small amounts, they can have significant impacts on climate, air quality, and atmospheric processes.
Particles and Water Vapor: The atmosphere also contains suspended particles such as dust, pollen, soot, and aerosols. Additionally, water vapor is a variable component, and its concentration varies based on location and weather conditions.
what causes turbulence in an airplane?
Turbulence in an airplane is primarily caused by changes in airflow patterns within the Earth’s atmosphere. Here are a few factors that contribute to turbulence:
Atmospheric Conditions: Turbulence often occurs when there are variations in air density, temperature, and moisture content. When air masses with different properties come into contact, such as warm and cold air, or moist and dry air, it can create instability and turbulence.
Jet Streams: Jet streams are high-altitude wind currents that flow rapidly in narrow bands. When an airplane encounters a jet stream, it may experience turbulence due to the abrupt changes in wind speed and direction.
Mountain Waves: When wind encounters a mountain range, it can create oscillating waves on the leeward side. These mountain waves can lead to turbulence as the airplane passes through them.
Frontal Systems: Along the boundaries of weather fronts, such as cold fronts and warm fronts, there can be significant changes in wind direction and speed. These abrupt transitions in air masses can cause turbulence as the airplane transitions through the front.
Convective Activity: Convective activity can produce strong updrafts and downdrafts, such as thunderstorms and cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of the quickly varying vertical air movements, flying near or through convective cells can provide extremely turbulent conditions.
Weather data, predictions, and radar systems are used by pilots and air traffic controllers to identify and steer clear of known turbulence zones. However, because atmospheric conditions can quickly shift, it’s not unusual to experience turbulence when flying. Modern aeroplanes are built to resist turbulence and are fitted with technology that minimize its effects on the crew and passengers.