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Activity Discussion Science & Technology What is the principle of an electric motor ? Reply To: What is the principle of an electric motor ?

• ### Rhona

Member
July 1, 2024 at 3:48 pm
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The principle of operation of an electric motor is based on the interaction between the magnetic fields produced by the motor’s windings and the magnetic field of a permanent magnet or electromagnet.

The key principles behind the electric motor are:

Magnetic Fields:

An electric current flowing through a conductor creates a magnetic field around it, as per Ampere’s law.

Permanent magnets or electromagnets also produce their own magnetic fields.

Electromagnetic Induction:

When a conductor, such as a wire, moves through a magnetic field, an electromotive force (EMF) is induced in the conductor, as per Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Lorentz Force:

The interaction between the magnetic field and the current-carrying conductor results in a force, called the Lorentz force, which acts on the conductor.

This Lorentz force is the basis for the rotational motion in an electric motor.

The basic operating principle of an electric motor can be summarized as follows:

When an electric current is passed through the windings of the motor, it creates a magnetic field around the windings.

This magnetic field interacts with the magnetic field of the permanent magnet or electromagnet in the motor, generating a Lorentz force.

The Lorentz force causes the motor’s rotor, which is connected to the windings, to rotate.

As the rotor rotates, the commutator periodically reverses the direction of the current in the windings, maintaining the rotation.

This continuous interaction between the magnetic fields and the resulting Lorentz force is what drives the rotational motion of the electric motor’s rotor, converting electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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