Find answers, ask questions, and connect with our
community around the world.

Activity Discussion Environment Distribution of minerals in India.


  • Shivani

    June 14, 2021 at 8:00 am
    Not Helpful

    General wisdom and geographical evidence show that India is rich in mineral resources. The exploration received more than 20,000 known mineral deposits and more than 60 mineral repositories.

    Eleven nations account for 90% of the total number of active mines (Andhra Pradesh, Orrisa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Karnataka).

    If the forests of India, the mines, tribal settlements and rivers of water are all mapped together, a surprising fact has emerged – the country’s largest mineral reserves are located below the richest forests and rivers in its major rivers. These countries are also home to the poorest people in India, their tribes.

    Globally, the mining industry is in the throes of prosperity. Global prices for minerals, iron ore and metals have risen to record levels, a practice that began in 2002 at an unprecedented demand by China. In 2006 alone, global prices for all minerals increased by 48%.

    2002-2005: International prices for minerals, iron ore and metals doubled (steel price increased by 118%; copper increased by 136%; earns 116%; and aluminum increased by 41%).

    Indian mines are characterized by a large number of small mines, owned by the public sector, accounting for 75% of total mineral production. Mining policy is forcing the industry to go to private, large, well-owned mines. Direct foreign investors and international mining companies are welcome.

    After services and manufacturing, India’s mining sector is emerging rapidly as the next sector, as China’s growing demand increases. In India, mineral production has tripled since the sector was ‘liberated’, from about 25,000 million in 1993-94 to more than Rs 84,000 million in 2005-06, an amazing growth rate of 10.7%. The production of coal, lignite, natural gas, bauxite, chromite, iron ore and limestone has been intensified.

    In 2003-04, India exported minerals worth Rs 49,911 crore (17% of total exports sold outside India). Exports of ores and minerals in India increased by 42% between 2001-02 and 2003-04; an increase mainly due to increased sales of cut diamonds and (76% of the total total mineral exported) and iron ore (10.5% of the total), essential minerals exported from India.

    However, mining contribution to national GDP stands at only 2.2-2.5% for more than a decade now. The sector contributes very little to compensation through royalties and taxes – cheap minerals, and low royalties. Also, royalties are rarely used to benefit mining districts.

    India produced 90 minerals in 2005-06, valued at Rs 84,211 estimated. Fuel minerals – coal, lignite, crude oil and natural gas – make up about 73% of the total amount of minerals produced in the country. However, the supply of petroleum minerals is declining over the years.

    Iron ore is the largest supplier of total mineral content, and is the fastest growing component of the Indian mining industry, with an annual annual growth rate of 30%, among the highest prices in the world. Iron ore alone accounts for a quarter of the total amount.

    Minerals, especially sand, rocks, bricks, earth and rock, are also important participants (about 10% of the total mineral content in the country, although difficult to obtain data.

    Non-ferrous metals are the smallest miners in the Indian mineral sector in terms of their value, albeit two hundred in terms of the mineral area and the quantity of minerals produced; their contribution to the total number of minerals produced in the country has remained at about 3.3 to 3.4% over the past few years. Limestone forms about two-thirds of the total value.

For Worksheets & PrintablesJoin Now