The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, oviducts, a pear shaped pouch called the uterus, the cervix and the external genitalia.
The oviducts or fallopian tubes can be divided into three regions – infundibulum ending into fimbriae, ampulla and isthmus.
The uterus is lined with three walls – outer perimetrium, middle myometrium and inner endometrium. It is the endometrium that gets shed off during menstruation.
During coitus the male releases sperms into the vagina, that is, he inseminates the female partner. The sperms released now travel through the cervix to the uterus and to the ampullary region of the fallopian tubes. If and only if the ovum has been released simultaneous and they fuse will lead to fertilization. For fertilization to occur the ovum and the sperm have to reach the ampullary isthmic junction simultaneously. Once they get fused, the single celled zygote starts to divide. This ball of cells starts to travel to the uterus.
There, in the uterus, it gets attached to the endometrium of the uterus. This process is known as implantation. And the lady is said to be pregnant. All the processes and divisions will continue after a successful implantation.
This was the general summary of a normal pregnancy.
When a zygote or embryo gets implanted in the fallopian tubes or cervix anywhere else other than the uterus, it will lead to miscarriage. Implantation occurring at parts other than uterus is known as ectopic pregnancy. The fetus will not be able to grow accordingly and will lead to miscarriage. However, this implantation will give a positive pregnancy test but will eventually lead to miscarriage.
Signs and Symptoms:
Ectopic pregnancy generally occurs in the fallopian tube. Since the FT is not made for implantation, its wall might rupture and the FT will start to bleed leading to life threatening complications.
During a normal pregnancy, menstruation generally does not occur but in ectopic pregnancy your vagina might show a slight bleeding.
Severe pelvic pains and abdominal bleeding. This abdominal bleeding is life threatening.
If the ectopic pregnancy has occurred in the FT, you can get severe shoulder pains.
Such pregnancies should be medically terminated before they get fatal.