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  • Chammi

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    June 5, 2024 at 5:54 pm
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    The Mughal Empire had a complex system of taxation that played a significant role in its administration and revenue generation. The primary sources of revenue for the empire were agricultural taxes, customs duties, and various other levies. Here are some key aspects of the Mughal Empire’s taxation system:

    Land Revenue (Zamindari System): The Mughals implemented a system where revenue was collected based on the assessment of agricultural land. The empire divided the land into different categories based on fertility and productivity. The assessment was done by officials known as “Amils” or “Amins.” The revenue was typically fixed at one-third or one-fourth of the total produce from the land.

    Mansabdari System: The Mansabdari system was a unique feature of the Mughal administration that linked military ranks with civil appointments. Mansabdars were officials who held ranks called “mansabs.” The empire collected revenue through the mansabdars, who were granted jagirs (land grants) and were responsible for collecting revenue from the assigned region. The mansabdars received a salary based on their rank, and their revenue collection formed a significant part of the imperial treasury.

    Customs Duties (Sair and Jaziya): The Mughals levied customs duties on goods transported through trade routes and at the entry points of cities. The two main customs duties were Sair and Jaziya. Sair was a tax on goods entering or leaving a city, while Jaziya was a tax imposed on non-Muslims living under Mughal rule.

    Other Taxes: The Mughals imposed various other taxes to supplement their revenue. These included taxes on professions, such as artisans, traders, and bankers. There were also taxes on markets, weights and measures, and tolls on roads and river transport.

    Tax Collection and Administration: The empire had a well-organized bureaucracy to administer the tax collection process. The Diwan (revenue minister) supervised the overall revenue administration. The provinces were divided into subahs (administrative units) and further into sarkars (revenue districts). Local revenue officers, such as the Amils, supervised the collection at the district level.

    It is important to note that the Mughal taxation system was not uniform throughout the empire, and it changed over time. Local variations and exemptions existed, and the system evolved under different emperors and regional administrators.

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