A compound having carbon ( C ) and hydrogen (H) as its main components is known as a hydrocarbon.
· Organic compounds
· Can be classified on the basis of number of bonds – saturated and unsaturated
· Can be classified as alkane, alkene, alkynes
· These have a varied nature of melting and boiling points
· These are, at times, gaseous in nature
· These generally have weak odors
[A] SATURATED HYDROCARBONS-
These are composed only single bonds. Example- alkanes
· These are simple hydrocarbons containing single bonds between adjacent carbons ( C – C)
· The compounds are sp<sup>3 </sup>hybridized
· These are simplest hydrocarbons
· The general formula of alkanes is – C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>(2n+2) ; </sub>where n is the number of carbons
[B] UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS-
Compounds having one or more double or triple bonds between the adjacent carbon atoms.
· These contain at least one double bond
· They are sp<sup>2 </sup>hybridized
· Their general formula is – C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>2n</sub>
· Example- butene, ethene, propene
· These contain at least one triple bonds
· They are sp hybridized
· Their general formula is – C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>2n-2</sub>
· Example- ethyne, propyne
[C] CYCLO HYDROCARBONS
These are ring compounds, i.e, they contain one or more rings of carbons. The hydrogen is also attached to the rings through carbon atoms.
Example- cyclo propane
[D] AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS:
· Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one ring aromatic structure.
· These are also known as arenes
· The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene
This was the classification of hydrocarbons. I hope this helps you.