Political causes for the revolt of 1857:-
1. Doctrine of Lapse- This doctrine was introduced by Lord Dalhousie. Under this doctrine many important states like Satara, Jaitpur, Jhansi, Sambalpur etc. were recklessly captured by the East India Company. This was done increase their control in India and expand their operations to exploit India and its resources. This was one of the major political reason for the revolt of 1857.
2. Denial of right to succession- the Britishers denied the right to succession to many princes in order to annex their land and seize their palaces and all other possessions. This was done with many huge and important states. These states stood against the british oppression and fought for their freedom in 1857.
Economic causes for the revolt of 1857:-
1. High land tax- The major revenue source for the britishers was land taxes and they decided to gain maximum benefits from it. They charged high level of taxes on the land of farmers which also led to the destruction of agriculture. The farmers were not able to expand their operations due to high tax rates. This led to the impoverishment of the farmers. The Indian farmers were also forced to grow certain crops like indigo which deteriorated their land and made it unfit for cultivation.
2. Destruction of Trade- the Britishers used to buy goods at subsidised rate and exported them out of India. There was no imports in order to create a balance. This led to the destruction of trade.
Socio-Religious causes for the revolt of 1857:-
1. Socio-Religious Reforms- the Britishers tried to change to change the hundreds of years old practices like abolition of sati, abolition of child marriage etc. Due to this people started resenting the Britishers and took part in the revolt of 1857.
2. Role of rumours- rumours also played a very important role in the uprising of 1857. The Indian sepoys were angered by the britishers when they introduced the new Enfield rifles. The sepoys had to chew off the rubber of the bullets in order to reload the rifle. It was rumoured that the bullet shell was made up of cow and pig carcass. The cow is highly sacred to Hindus and pigs are taboo to Muslims. This deeply angered the Indian soldiers and they revolted against the British rule.