A cell is the smallest unit of our body. It is also known as the building blocks of the organism. These can be defined as the structural, functional and biological units of life.
Cells are made up of structural elements – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (C, H, O, N)
These elements help in the formation of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and other elements that help in the formation of the cell.
A cell has it outer covering known as the plasma membrane – it is made up of phospholipids bilayer. This bilayer also consists of carbohydrates and proteins.
Plant cells have an extra layer outside the plasma membrane known as the cell wall – it is made up of cellulose. It is absent in animals.
The inside of a cell consists of cytoplasm that acts as a matrix to accommodate various organelles. These include –
Nucleus – consists of the genetic materials
Mitochondria – helps in preparation of energy
Lysosomes – manages the waste of the cells
Endoplasmic reticulum – acts as the passage for transport of molecules, helps in the synthesis of proteins and steroids depending on its structure.
Ribosomes – helps in the synthesis of proteins
These were the basic organelles and their functions in brief. So a typicsl cell consists of these components. However, there are a few modifications with respect to the organism and its mechanisms. But these are the basic organelles present in each multicellular animal.
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