From the Asian times agriculture has been practiced by human beings the term agriculture has its origin in the Latin words ‘ager’ means field and ‘cultura’ means culture or to cultivate. Thus, agricultural was mainly the tilting of fields for growing crops.
Agriculture is the most important economic activity. It includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flower and rearing of life stocks. All over the world 50% of the population engaged in agriculture activity, two third of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.
There are three types of farming or agriculture methods.
Subsistence agriculture- subsistence agriculture is the most basic form of agriculture. It is in practice since primitive age. It is basically practice to meet the requirements and needs of the farmer and their families. They sell or exchange their products among a small group.
Example- wheat, rice, maze, etc.
Intensive subsistence agriculture- in intensive subsistence agriculture maximum usage of minimum land is done. The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. More than one crop a year is grown on the same plot. This is commonly practiced in China, Japan, India and several other South-East Asian countries it is practice which is prevalent in over populated Nations. Crop rotation method and manuring maintain the fertility of the soil the farmer is able to grow two or three crops annually with high quality seeds fertilizer and plenty of water.
Example- cotton, sugarcane, rice, etc.
Primitive subsistence agriculture- this type of agriculture includes Nomadic herding and shifting cultivation.
Nomadic herding-nomadic herding is the most common type of herding practice by numerous who wander from place to place in search of grazing postures and water. Nomadic tribes earn money by selling the products that they make from the skin, hair or bones of the animals their animals like yak, camel, sheep and goats.
Shifting cultivation- shifting cultivation is mostly practiced by tribal people living in hilly or forested region it is called jiham in North East India. Shifting cultivators are mostly found in tropical forests the practice of this method promote deforestation because to clear a patch of forest land tribal people burn down the trees and bushes. In some parts of the world it is also termed as slash and burn agriculture. Cultivation is carried out by primitive tools. Major crops like beans maize millets and some Tuber crops like cassava, potato and top yoga are grown. After some year the soil loses is fertility, then the farmers shift to another part of land.
Commercial agriculture- in commercial agriculture crops are cultivated and livestock are shared as a commodity to sell in the market. In this type of agriculture the forms are generally large in size with extensive farming operations intensive is high and it depends on the working techniques of farmer.