Chlorophyll is the pigment that gives the green colour to plants. The pigment that helps a plant to prepare its food through photosynthesis.
It occurs in various forms like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, chlorophyll d and chlorophyll e.
STRUCTURE OF CHLOROPHYLL –
· Chlorophyll is present in disc like substances, known as thylakoids that reside in the matrix of the chloroplasts
· The molecule consists of a phytol chain and porphyrin ring
· It has a central magnesium atom surrounded by nitrogen containing rings – porphyrin rings
· From the ring extends a chain, known as phytol chain
· Due to the modifications in the side chains the chlorophyll can be divided into 5 different types, namely chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, chlorophyll d and chlorophyll e.
· Chlorophyll a (C55 H72 O5 N4 Mg) and chlorophyll b (C55 H70 O6 N4 Mg) are universal pigments, found in every green plant or organism, even in green algae (cyanobacteria)
· Chlorophyll c (C35 H30 O5 N4 Mg) and chlorophyll d (C54 H70 O6 N4 Mg) are found in different algae (brown and red algae)
· Chlorophyll e (C55 H70 O6 N4 Mg) is found in golden algae
· Chlorophyll plays the most important role in photosynthesis
· It absorbs the light and transfers the photons to photosystems
· There are two photosystems – photosystem l and photosystem ll
· The transferred photon follows critical mechanisms leading to lysis of water and liberation of oxygen and then formation of numerous compounds through electrochemical chain
The overall equation of photosynthesis is –
6CO<sub>2 </sub>+ 6H<sub>2</sub>O —-> C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>12</sub>O<sub>6 </sub>+ 6O<sub>2</sub>
The reaction looks so simple, that is, reaction of carbon dioxide and water leading to the formation of glucose and liberation of oxygen. However, this reaction is fulfilled by the complex reactions occurring in the chlorophyll that includes photosystems and electron transport chain, movement of electron, splitting of water and conversion of energies. Hence, the complexity of this simple looking equation resides in the chlorophyll.
I hope this answer helps.