Every living being is made up of cells. Cells are the smallest structural and functional unit of any living creature. Cells can be classified as prokaryotic and eukaryotic based on their composition and the organisms they are occurring in. prokaryotic cells are found in single celled prokaryotes like bacteria where the cells lack a proper nucleus and other cell organelles whereas a eukaryotic cell is a complex cell containing organelles and a well defined nucleus. The organelles present are mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, ribosomes, lysosomes, centrioles, chloroplasts(in plant cells) inclusion bodies and other organelles.
Coming to your question, let’s discuss about the Golgi apparatus.
These are darkly stained bodies of the endomembrane system discovered by Camillo Golgi in nervous cells. An endomembrane system consists of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and lysosomes.
· It consists of a series of flattened disc like structures called – the cisternae.
· The cisternae are present as stacks and a mammalian cell consists approximately 40 – 100 cisternae.
· These cisternae can be divided into two networks – the cis Golgi network (CGN) and the trans Golgi network (TGN).
· The CGN is the 1<sup>st</sup> cisternae
· The TGN is the last cisternae
· the remaining compartments present in between the cis and trans faces are known as medial cisternae.
· golgi apparatus dispatches the products its receives from the endoplasmic reticulum
· it packages the proteins received from the ER into vesicles
· golgi stacks are also involved in enzymatic reactions
· the post translational modifications occur near the membrane surface in golgi bodies, example – phosphorylation and glycosylation
· it is a site for synthesis of glycolipids
· in plant cells, the polysaccharides of cell wall are synthesized by the Golgi apparatus.
These were some important points regarding Golgi apparatus. Similarly, each organelle has its important role in the cell. I hope this helps.