As we know that India is a very vast country. Two-thirds of India’s population is engaged in agricultural activities. It is a primary activity, which produces food grains and raw materials for industries. India is geographically a vast country so it has various food and non-food crops which are cultivated in three main cropping seasons which are rabi, kharif and zaid.
Some Major crops are:-
Rice, Wheat, Millets, Maize and Pulses.
•Temperature: Between 22-32°C with high humidity.
• Rainfall: Around 150-300 cm.
• Soil Type: Deep clayey and loamy soil.
• Top Rice Producing States: West Bengal > Punjab > Uttar Pradesh > Andhra Pradesh > Bihar.
◇ India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
● wheat :-
• Temperature: Between 10-15°C (Sowing time) and 21-26°C (Ripening & Harvesting) with bright sunlight.
• Rainfall: Around 75-100 cm.
• Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy (Ganga-Satluj plains and black soil region of the Deccan)
▪︎ Top Wheat Producing States: Uttar Pradesh > Punjab > Madhya Pradesh > Haryana > Rajasthan.
◇India is the second largest producer after China
● Millets: –
• Temperature: Between 27-32°C
• Rainfall: Around 50-100 cm.
• Soil Type: Can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil because they are less sensitive to soil deficiencies.
• Jowar- Rain-fed crop grown in the moist areas with less or no irrigation.
• Bajra- Sandy soils and shallow black soil.
• Ragi- Red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. (dry regions)
• Top Millets Producing States: Rajasthan > Karnataka > Maharashtra > Madhya Pradesh > Uttar Pradesh
• Temperature: Between 21-27°C
• Rainfall: High rainfall.
• Soil Type: Old alluvial soil.
• Top Maize Producing States: Karnataka > Maharashtra > Madhya Pradesh > Tamil Nadu > Telangana
◇ India is the seventh largest producer worldwide.
● pulses :-
• Temperature: Between 20-27°C
• Rainfall: Around 25-60 cm.
• Soil Type: Sandy-loamy soil.
• Top Pulses Producing States: Madhya Pradesh > Rajasthan > Maharashtra > Uttar Pradesh > Karnataka.
• India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world.