MemberMay 24, 2021 at 10:50 pm::
Chanakya, also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupta was the general secretary of Chandragupta Maurya. He was a trainer at Taxila university and generally trained Bhim And Kirat princesss. By destroying the Nanda dynasty he destroyed Chandragupta maurya. He wrote a book named ARTHASHASTRA based on politics,economics, agriculture, social policy etc.Kautilya has discussed seven elements of the state by not giving details of the four essential elements of the state – land, population, government and sovereignty, propounded by Western political thinkers. In this regard, he does not give a definition of the state, but supports the already existing weekly theory. Kautilya has compared the state to the human body and has accepted its form. All the elements of the state work like organs of the human body inter-related, interdependent and together.
1. Swami (king) is equal to the top. He should be aristocratic, intelligent, courageous, patient, sober, far-sighted and skilled in the art of war.
2. Amatya (minister) is the eyes of the state. The term used by Kautilya for ministers, secretaries, administrative and judicial officials. According to Kautilya, the Amatya ie the minister should be born citizens of their own country, belonging to a higher clan, characterful, capable, skilled in various arts and self-devotees.
3.Janpad (land and subjects or population) are the people of the state on which the existence of the state is possiblem Kautilya has described fertile, full of natural resources, livestock, rivers, ponds and forestland prime land as suitable.
Population includes people who are contributing to economic production. People should be loyal, hardworking and obeying the king’s rules regulations and orders.
4.Durg (fort) are the one who have the responsibility is to protect the state. The king should build such forts, which are beneficial for aggressive war and from defensive point of view. Kautilya has described four types of fortifications – Oudic (water) fort, mountain (hill) fort, Vanadurga (wild) and Dhanvan (desert) fort.
5. Kosh (treasury) is similar to the head of the state. The Fund has been considered as the most important element of the state, because money is required during the operation and war of the state. The corpus should be so abundant that it is helpful in facing any calamity. Kautilya has given several measures to increase funds in the fund. He also advises the king to adopt unfair means to get revenue in a crisis.
6.Dand (force, baton or army) is the brain of the state. Force or army is a very important element to control the subjects and enemies. Kautilya has given six types of army. For example, hereditary army, appointed or hired soldiers, soldiers of military corporations, soldiers of friendly state, soldiers of enemy state and tribal soldiers. Vaishyas and Shudras can also be recruited in the army in times of crisis. Soldiers should be patient, efficient, war-skilled and patriotic. The king should also take care of the comforts of the soldiers. Kautilya has stated the four goals of punishing – achieving the unattainable object, protecting the object, promoting the protected object and dividing the object in the appropriate characters.
7.Suhrid (friend) is the ear of the state. The king’s friends help him in both peace and war. In this regard, Kautilya distinguishes between Sahaj (ideal) and Artificial friend. Spontaneous friend is better than artificial friend. The destruction of a king whose friends are greedy, coward and coward is inevitable.