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Activity Discussion Science & Technology Biology: Mitochondria (Power house of cell)

  • Hayi

    June 20, 2023 at 10:51 pm
    Not Helpful

    Mitochondria – Powerhouse of cell:

    Mitochondria is a double membrane-bound semiautonomous organelle present in the cytoplasm of the cell which possesses its genetic material and ribosomes. The proteins synthesized by the proteins in mitochondria are utilized to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the food. This ATP acts as the energy currency of the cell, because of which the whole cell and body get energy.Thus, mitochondria are called the powerhouse of the cells.

    Structure of Mitochondria

    The mitochondrion is a double-membraned, rod-shaped,structure found in both plant and animal cell.Its size ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometre in diameter.The structure comprises an outer membrane, an inner membrane, and a gel-like material called the matrix.The outer membrane and the inner membrane are made of proteins and phospholipid layers separated by the intermembrane space.The outer membrane covers the surface of the mitochondrion and has a large number of special proteins known as porins.


    The inner membrane of mitochondria is rather complex in structure. It has many folds that form a layered structure called cristae, and this helps in increasing the surface area inside the organelle. The cristae and the proteins of the inner membrane aid in the production of ATP molecules. The inner mitochondrial membrane is strictly permeable only to oxygen and ATP molecules. A number of chemical reactions take place within the inner membrane of mitochondria.

    Mitochondrial Matrix

    The mitochondrial matrix is a viscous fluid that contains a mixture of enzymes and proteins. It also comprises ribosomes, inorganic ions, mitochondrial DNA, nucleotide cofactors, and organic molecules. The enzymes present in the matrix play an important role in the synthesis of ATP molecules.

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