The term eclipse is defined as a situation that arises in outer space when one celestial body tends to cover fully or partially another celestial body. That is if one astronomical object comes under the shadow of another astrological object then that whole scenario is known as an eclipse.
As we have known, Sun and Moon are the two Astro bodies that are visible quite clearly from the earth. Hence, if by any means the display of those two as viewed from the earth is changed, we will know it for sure.
There are two eclipses:
As we all know that the moon itself does not have any lights of its own. The light is borrowed from the sun’s light rays. This means that the moon is visible to the living organisms on earth by the sun’s light which is reflected from its surface.
However, if the sun’s light rays are blocked or to say it more simply if the earth’s shadow covers up the sun’s light, then Lunar Eclipse occurs.
Although some more conditions give a perfect lunar eclipse :
Firstly, the event takes place only on a full moonThe alignment of the moon, earth, and sun should be the same. i.e., they must fall in a straight line.
Working of the eclipse:
The moon, earth, and sun are in a straight line, in the same order. Therefore the shadow cast by the earth ie. the umbra and the penumbra fall on the moon. When the moon passes through these shadows, first through penumbra then through the umbra. As soon as the moon reaches the umbra position, an entire lunar eclipse is created, as seen from the surface of the earth.
When we talk about celestial bodies having their own light or not, we should understand that none of the planets and their natural satellites have their own light source. Hence, the sun is the only star that is providing to all planets and satellites, including earth.
The Solar Eclipse is somewhat similar to Lunar Eclipse as well. Whenever the moon travels between the sun and the earth, such that the sun’s light rays are blocked, and a ring is formed around the blocking area. The event is known as the solar eclipse.
Additional condition for a proper solar eclipse:
The alignment of the moon, earth, and sun should be the same. i.e., they must fall in a straight line/near-straight-line format.
Working of the eclipse:
The earth, moon and, sun are in a straight line, in the same order. The size of the moon is much smaller compared to that of the sun. The illusion is created when the moons fall into the small with the earth and sun. In this manner, almost entire sun rays are blocked. Due to the size, the moon cannot cover the whole sun, Hence the light rays are seen to shine around the blocked surface in the shape of a circular ring. Hence, a Solar eclipse is formed.