Ram Manohar Lohia was born on 23rd March, 1910 at Akbarpur, Faizabad district Uttar Pradesh. His mother died and he was raised by his father, Hiralal. He earned his PhD degree in “Salt and Satyagraha” from Berlin University
He was introduced to Indian national movement at very early age. He organized a small mourning on Tilak’s death in 1920 when he was a student.
He returned to India from Berlin in 1934, helped set up the Congress Socialist Party and became an editor of a weekly congress socialist.
In 1936 , he was selected by Jawaharlal Lal Nehru as the first secretary of the foreign department of the Congress. Due to Gandhi’s influence he propagated the idea of decentralisation of state power and institutions.Also influenced by the ideology of socialism and he tried Indianization of socialism from the theory and practices of Marxism and international Communism. He gave presidential speech ‘’The Doctrinal Foundations of Socialism’’ in 1952.
In 1952, he founded Praja socialist Party due to his difference with Congress. And he became member of parliament in 1963. He established Hind Kishan Panchayat after independence for agriculture solution. He gave the concept of four pillar state – village, district, province and centre.
In 1965 he merged the Socialist Party (Lohia) into the ranks of the Samyukta Socialist Party. And won Lok Sabha general election of 1967 from Kannauj, but died a few months later.
His important books-Fragments of World Mind: (1949), Wheel of History (1955), Will to Power and Other Writings (1956), Satyagraha Now (1940) article in Gandhiji’s Newspaper Harijan, Guilty Men of India’s Partition: (1960), India, China, and Northern Frontiers: (1963), Marx, Gandhi and Socialism: (1963), The Caste System: (1964), Interval During Politics: (1965).
He supported idea of Socialism, but he was also sure about the inadequacy of <font color=”rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)” face=”inherit”>European Socialism for an Indian Society. He </font>criticized<font color=”rgba(0, 0, 0, 0)” face=”inherit”> Marxism for its internal contradiction and also criticized Capitalism by questioning the foundation.So he gave the idea of New- Socialism </font>that suits India better. New socialism is a of integrated idea of socialism and Gandhian principles . New Socialism is all about egalitarianism , growing economic interdependence , democratic rights included right to private life , adult franchise, Gandhian techniques, dignity and right of a common man.
Lohia came with the idea of ‘seven revolutions’ or sapta Kranti for the betterment of Indian social system
1. Equality between man and woman
2. Against political, economic and race-based inequalities
3. Destruction of castes
4. Against foreign domination
5. Economic equality, planned production and against private property
6.Against interference in private life
7. Against proliferation of arms and weapons, more reliance on Satyagraha
Famous quote – “Satyagraha without constructive work is like a sentence without a verb”