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Activity Discussion History Harappan Civilization (Class VII)

  • Harappan Civilization (Class VII)

    Posted by Ashis on June 19, 2023 at 12:39 am

    What were some of the prominent features of the major Harappan cities?

    Debopriya replied 3 months ago 3 Members · 2 Replies
  • 2 Replies
  • Mufaddal

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    June 21, 2023 at 6:43 pm
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    The Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, flourished in the Bronze Age around 2600 to 1900 BCE in the region that encompasses modern-day Pakistan and northwestern India. The major Harappan cities were characterized by several prominent features:

    1. Urban Planning: Harappan cities were remarkably well-planned and displayed a sophisticated urban layout. Streets were laid out in a grid-like pattern, forming a well-organized network. The cities were divided into different sectors, with separate areas for residential, commercial, and administrative purposes.

    2. Brick and Stone Architecture: The Harappans were skilled builders and constructed their cities using fired bricks made from mud and stone. The bricks were uniformly sized and used for constructing houses, public buildings, and defensive walls. The use of burnt bricks contributed to the durability and uniformity of the structures.

    3. Complex Drainage Systems: One notable feature of Harappan cities was their advanced drainage systems. The cities had well-planned and engineered systems for wastewater management. Houses had individual bathrooms and toilets connected to an underground sewage system. Streets were equipped with covered drains, ensuring efficient disposal of waste and rainwater.

    4. Great Bath: Some Harappan cities featured an impressive structure known as the Great Bath. These large, rectangular pools were likely used for ritualistic bathing or other ceremonial purposes. The Great Bath found at the archaeological site of Mohenjo-daro is the most famous example.

    5. Citadel and Defensive Walls: The major Harappan cities had a fortified citadel or acropolis located on elevated mounds. These citadels housed public buildings, administrative centers, and possibly the ruling elite. The citadels were often protected by defensive walls, which provided security and protection for the inhabitants.

    6. Standardized Weights and Measures: The Harappans had a sophisticated system of weights and measures. Archaeological findings include standardized weights made of stone, terracotta, and faience. This suggests the existence of a well-regulated trade and economic system.

    7. Harappan Script: The Harappans developed a script that has not yet been deciphered, known as the Harappan script. This system of writing was found on seals, tablets, and pottery. Despite efforts by scholars, its meaning and content remain unknown, limiting our understanding of Harappan society and culture.

    These prominent features demonstrate the advanced urban planning, engineering skills, and social organization of the Harappan cities, reflecting a sophisticated and thriving civilization.

  • Debopriya

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    June 21, 2023 at 7:10 pm
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    Harappan Civilization also known as Indus Valley civilization is dated between 2500-1700 BCE. It was also known as brown age civilization. The Indus Valley civilization consisted of two large cities namely, Harappa ane Mohenjodaro which are situated along the Indus river bank. There were more than 100 towns that were relatively smaller in size. It is called “Harappa” because it was first discovered in 1921 at the mordern site of Harappa situated in West punjab i.e Pakistan.

    The prominent features of Harappan Civilization are:-

    1. Harappan cities were divided into two parts:- Citadel and lower town. Citadels in Harappan civilization were almost 12 metres tall. Even though the purpose of this structure remains debated. The word citadel comes from Latin word citavas which means “citizenship”, “the city or state”. It is said these large fortress are used to protect against attacks, disasters and natural calamities. The main feature of citadel was it was seperated from lower town. It is also believed that in this place the elite members of society used to live. The lower town was used by common people and the marginalised group of society.

    2. There was no window in the walls along the ground level. It seems that people were very much concerned about their privacy. There were no windows or doors that faced towards the roads or lanes.

    3. The Great Bath is also an extensive feature of Harappan Civilization. It is belived that this rectangle shaped placed and was brick-structured was surrounded by sets of room which was used for bathing. It was basically used for some kinds of ritual bathing. Water was supplied from three adjacent rooms.

    4. The most outstanding feature of Harappan civilization were the streets and lanes which were equipped with well- planned drainage system. The streets cut each other at right angle and the width of these streets was in a set-ratio. Even smaller towns and villages has well-planned drainage system. It indicates that people were well aware of hygeine and sanitation. Burnt bricks were used to make drains. Even small drains were connected with latrines and bathrooms of the private houses and these drains ran into larger sewers in the main street which were covered with drains. In Kalibangan, many houses had own wells.

    5. The manuscipts that were written during Happan civilization were written in different format. The writings started from right to left and then from left to right in next line. The writings comprised of many signs and symbols. The language is yet to be deciphered. deciphered.

    6. There were many teracottas that were found such as Mother Goddess which was discovered in Mohenjo-daro. Teracotta seals were also found.

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